Normally, Bitcoin Core does not keep track of data on non-wallet transactions, but this can be enabled with the -txindex option. Note that to create the transaction index for the first time, you will also need to reindex the complete blockchain with -reindex, which will take several hours to several days and a lot of extra disk space. When this option is enabled, you can use getrawtransaction with a past transaction, with or without a wallet. If you want a human-readable output, including the number of confirmations, add true after the txid. Fortunately, there are also turnkey solutions, such as various Blockchain explorers. At first, there was none, then there were basics allowing users to search for specific addresses or transactions. Today, we have a plethora of blockchain explorers that can be used to extract all sorts of data from multiple blockchains, including hidden messages, block heights, and rich lists.