Lightning Network node operators earn money by conducting transactions and providing cash. Operators are able to collect fees, and users can be redirected to various paths and picking fees with which they are comfortable. So far, most nodes are using only one satoshi per transaction, which means it would take millions of transactions to earn a small amount. For those trying to make a profit, this is extremely difficult because there are already many nodes with negligible costs. The adoption of Lightning on several cryptographic platforms also has major implications. The Lightning protocol is open source code and conforms to a universal standard, it allows the conversion between different crypto-currencies, called “atomic exchanges” -. Once the Lightning network is established, it opens many doors. The near-zero cost and instant execution make Lightning an ideal tool for both micropayments and as a backbone for the Internet of Things (IoT). A micropayment is a small fee – a fraction of a penny – that a consumer can use to pay for an online activity, such as reading an article on a news site. It would replace monthly or annual subscription fees, allowing customers to pay only for the content they consume. The Internet of Things is a large-scale system in which smart devices connect and “talk” over the Internet. An example would be smart cars that use IoT data to find the most efficient way to navigate traffic. Although fees are minimal, Woosley added, they can be useful for a number of reasons. On the one hand, the network needs liquidity. Each Lightning node has a certain “liquidity”, or the amount that can be routed by it according to the amount that the operator has blocked in the channel. Channels with more money will be able to support larger payments or much more, and through this service, could charge for these hops. Credit cards cost around 3%, so lightning is likely to be orders of magnitude cheaper than credit cards.