Miners in the world of cryptocurrency are locked in a zero sum game to discover new blocks. As competition intensifies, miners must find an increasingly difficult advantage to beat their rivals. To do this, they are now turning to costly and specialized cooling systems that were once the exclusive preserve of advanced research laboratories and military facilities. Companies providing liquid immersion cooling technologies and services reported an increase in the number of Bitcoin miners’ investigations. , for example, produces a liquid called Novec used to directly cool the printed circuit boards. This means that the boards are immersed in the liquid, usually in an “open bath” system, where they are exposed, for easy access. 3M liquid works by passing from liquid to vapor, at a very low boiling point, typically 49 degrees Celsius. As the submerged electronics generate heat, the liquid heats up and evaporates. The steam rises in a condenser, cools and then returns to the tank in liquid form. The main competitor of the Novec-based systems is liquid cooling using mineral oil. Although the principle is similar, oil immersion cooling is slightly more complex than Novec filling systems. Printed circuit boards are immersed in an oil-based coolant, as with Novec, but the oil must be dispensed with a pump to eliminate heat. The oil is routed to a heat exchanger where heat is transferred to water filled pipes that connect to a cooling tower located somewhere outside the building. The cooling tower then dissipates the heat in the air. Immersion cooling can reduce operating costs. Even with the potential savings, immersion cooling remains costly. For a typical data center, 3M estimates that the cost of using its Novec product can reach 25% of the cost of the cooled hardware. The company claims, however, that bitcoin miners operate servers so dense that fluid costs of 2% to 5% of the hardware are possible. As immersion cooling gains momentum, mining operations may take on even more far-fetched mobile forms. buy fluids to liter now, but they remain a curiosity for the vast majority of data centers. Almost all existing data centers rely on air-cooling systems because they are less expensive to operate, less complex to manage and more widely available. According to the IHS research company, liquid cooling represents less than 1% of the data center cooling market. However, the company also found that demand for liquid cooling systems was increasing due to rising energy costs and the emergence of high performance data centers.