Maintaining an Antminer S19 Pro can seem like a daunting task, but with the right knowledge and tools it’s actually quite easy. In this guide we will provide step-by-step instructions on how to properly maintain your Antminer S19 Pro. We’ll cover topics such as routine inspections, troubleshooting hash boards, and using Putty software for diagnostics. With our guidance you’ll be able to keep your miner up and running at peak performance.
Preparation and Maintenance Guidelines
It’s essential to take the time to properly prepare and maintain components before, during, and after installation. This includes applying thermal gel for better heat transfer, forming air ducts for better airflow, connecting power supplies in the correct sequence, fixing chips to prevent overheating, and ensuring test fixtures meet production requirements. Additionally, these guidelines should also include instructions on cleaning components with approved solvents such as isopropyl alcohol or distilled water, as well as how to store components away from extreme temperatures and humidity levels safely. Finally, regularly scheduled maintenance checks should be carried out every few months or at least annually to guarantee the proper functioning of all parts within the system.
Preparation Requirements for Repair Platform, Tools, and Equipment
I. Platform Requirements
- To perform maintenance work, an anti-static maintenance workbench is required. It should be grounded, and an anti-static wristband and grounding are necessary.
II. Equipment Requirements
- Constant temperature soldering iron (350°C-380°C) with a pointed tip for soldering small patches such as chip resistors and capacitors.
- Hot air guns and BGA rework stations are used for chip / BGA disassembly and welding.
- Multimeter with welded steel pins and heat-shrinkable sleeves for easy measurement. The recommended model is the Fluke 15b+ multimeter.
- Oscilloscope. The recommended model is UTD2102CEX+. A network cable is required for an internet connection and a stable network.
III. Test Tool Requirements
- ARC Antminer Hashboard Tester
- Lab PSU 10-30V / 1-15A
- APW12 power supply: AP12_12V-15V_V1.2 and power adapter cable. It is recommended to use thick copper wire for the positive and negative poles of the power supply to connect the power supply and the power board and only limited to PT1 and maintenance test use.
- Use the test fixture of the V2.3 control board (test fixture material number ZJ0001000001). The positive and negative poles of the test jig need to be installed with discharge resistors. Using a cement resistance of 20 ohms and 100W or more is recommended.
IV. Maintenance Auxiliary Materials/Tools Requirements
- Solder Paste 138°C, flux, Mechanic lead-free circuit board cleaner, and anhydrous alcohol.
- Mechanic lead-free circuit board cleaner cleans up the flux residue after maintenance.
- Thermally conductive gel is used to apply to the chip surface after repair.
- Ball-planting steel mesh, desoldering wick, and solder balls (the recommended ball diameter is 0.4mm).
- When replacing a new chip, it is necessary to tin the chip pins and then solder them to the hash board. Apply thermally conductive gel evenly on the chip’s surface, then lock the heatsink.
- Serial port code scanner.
- Serial port adapter board RS232 to TTL adapter board 3.3V.
- Self-made short-circuit probe (use the pins for wiring and welding and heat the shrinkable sleeve to prevent short-circuit between the probe and the small heatsink).
V. Common Maintenance Spare Material Requirements
- 0402 resistor (0R, 10K, 4.7K,)
- 0402 capacitor (0.1uF, 1uF)
- When replacing a chip, pay attention to the operation method. After replacing any component, check that the PCB board has no obvious deformation. Check the replacement and surrounding parts for missing, open, and short circuits.
- Maintenance personnel must have electronic knowledge, at least one year of maintenance experience, and proficiency in BGA/QFN/LGA packaging and welding technology.
- After repair, the hashboard must be tested more than twice, and all tests must pass.
- Check the tools to ensure that the test fixture can work typically. Determine the parameters of the maintenance station test software, the version of the test jig, and other related parameters.
- To test repairing and replacing the chip, test the chip first and then do the functional test after it passes. The functional test must ensure that the small heatsink is welded correctly, the large heat sink is installed, and the thermal adhesive gel is applied evenly. Two hash boards should be placed simultaneously to form an air duct when using the chassis to dissipate heat. For single-sided testing in production, the air duct must also be formed.
- When measuring the signal, use fans to dissipate heat and ensure the fans are at full speed.
- When powering on the hashboard, connect the negative copper cord of the power supply first, then the positive copper cord of the power supply, and finally, insert the signal cable.
- When disassembling, reverse the order of installation. First, remove the signal cable, then pull the positive copper cord of the power supply, and finally, remove the negative copper cord. If you do not follow this order, it may cause damage to U1 and U2.
- Before testing the pattern, the repaired hashboard must cool down before testing; otherwise, it will lead to testing NG.
- Pre-tin the chip pins with solder paste to replace a new chip and then solder them to the PCB for repair.
Overview of Antminer S19 Pro Components
Overview of the S19 Pro Hash Board Structure
The S19 Pro hash board is made up of 114 BM1398 chips divided into 38 groups, each consisting of 3 ICs. The operating voltage of the BM1398 chip is 0.32V, and for seven of the groups, a boost circuit powers the LDO, which outputs 1.8V. The remaining groups are supplied by VDD12.6V through the LDO to provide 1.8V, and the voltage of each domain is reduced by 0.32V. All 0.8V is provided by the 1.8V output of this domain via LDO.
S19 Pro Hash Board Boost Circuit
The S19 Pro hash board uses a boost circuit to convert the 12.6V power supply to 20V
Signal Trend of S19 Pro Chip
The S19 Pro chip has four signal types: CLK, TX, RX, and RST. The CLK signal flows from the 25M oscillator to chip 01 through to chip 114, and the voltage range is 0.7V-1.3V. The TX signal flows from IO port 7 pin to IC U4, then transmits from chip 01 to chip 114, with a voltage of 0V when the IO cable is not inserted and 1.8V during operation. The RX signal flows from chip 114 to chip 01, returns to the signal cable terminal pin 8 through U2, and then returns to the control board, with a voltage of 0.3V when the IO signal cable is not inserted and 1.8V during operation. The BO signal flows from chip 01 to chip 114, and the multimeter measurement value is 0V. The RST signal flows from pin 3 of the IO port to IC U3 through level conversion and then transmits from chip 01 to chip 114 after level conversion. The voltage is 0V when no IO signal cable is inserted and the equipment is in standby, and it is 1.8V when operating.
Antminer S19 Pro Structure
The whole miner is composed of three hash boards, one control board, APW12 power supply, and four cooling fans
Identifying Common Issues with Hashboards and Troubleshooting Procedures
Phenomenon 1: Single board test detection chip is 0
Check the power output
- Use a multimeter to measure the voltage output at the power output.
- Compare the measured voltage to the expected voltage value.
- If the measured voltage is significantly lower than the expected value, check the power supply connection to the hash board.
- If the power supply connection is correct, check the power supply unit for issues.
- If the power supply unit is not the issue, check the hash board for any component or wiring issues.
- Repair or replace any faulty components or wiring as needed.
- Repeat the power output check to verify that the issue has been resolved.
Check the voltage output in the voltage domain
- Use a multimeter to measure the voltage output in the voltage domain.
- The voltage of each voltage domain should be around 0.32V.
- If the voltage is not around 0.32V, check the power supply terminal of the hash board.
- Measure the resistance between pins 1, 4 and 8 to check whether the MOS is short-circuited.
- If 16V has power supply but no domain voltage, continue to check.
- Check the output of the power supply terminal of the hash board to verify that it is working properly.
- If there are still issues, check the hash board for any component or wiring issues.
- Repair or replace any faulty components or wiring as needed.
- Repeat the voltage output check to verify that the issue has been resolved.