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What is a Partially Signed Bitcoin Transaction (PSBT)? A Comprehensive Guide

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In the ever-evolving landscape of digital currency, Bitcoin stands as the pioneering force that introduced the world to the concept of cryptocurrency. At its core, Bitcoin transactions represent the transfer of value between participants within the Bitcoin network. These transactions are securely recorded on the blockchain, ensuring transparency, immutability, and decentralization. However, as the network and its user base have grown, so too have the demands for more sophisticated transaction types, particularly in terms of security and flexibility. This is where Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBTs) come into play, marking a significant advancement in the way Bitcoin transactions are conducted.

PSBTs are a relatively new addition to the Bitcoin protocol, designed to enhance transaction security while maintaining the network’s foundational principles. The concept of a Partially Signed Bitcoin Transaction emerged from the need to facilitate more complex transactions, such as those requiring signatures from multiple parties before execution. PSBTs address this need by allowing a transaction to be partially signed by one or more parties and then completed by others at a later stage. This process not only improves security by enabling offline (or cold storage) signing but also increases the versatility of Bitcoin transactions, accommodating a wider range of use cases.

The significance of PSBTs in the Bitcoin network cannot be overstated. They represent a leap forward in making Bitcoin transactions more secure, flexible, and user-friendly. By simplifying the process of multi-signature transactions and enhancing compatibility between different Bitcoin wallets and services, PSBTs are paving the way for a more inclusive and robust Bitcoin ecosystem. As we delve deeper into the intricacies of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions, it becomes clear that they are a critical development in the ongoing evolution of Bitcoin, offering enhanced transaction security and opening new possibilities for users and developers alike.

Understanding Bitcoin Transactions

At its simplest, a Bitcoin transaction involves the transfer of Bitcoin value from one address to another on the Bitcoin network. This process is underpinned by blockchain technology, a decentralized ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers. Each transaction is comprised of inputs and outputs: inputs refer to the source of the Bitcoin being sent, while outputs designate the recipient(s). For a transaction to be valid, the total amount of inputs must equal the total amount of outputs, ensuring the conservation of value within the system.

Importance of Signatures in Transactions

Digital signatures play a crucial role in the security and integrity of Bitcoin transactions. When a user initiates a transaction, they must sign it with their private key, a secure digital code known only to the owner. This signature proves the user’s ownership of the Bitcoin being sent and authorizes the transfer. It’s akin to signing a check in the traditional banking system but with a critical difference: digital signatures are cryptographically secure, making them nearly impossible to forge. The public key, associated with the user’s Bitcoin address, is used to verify the signature without revealing the private key, ensuring the transaction is both secure and authentic.

Challenges with Traditional Bitcoin Transactions

While the Bitcoin network offers a revolutionary approach to digital currency, traditional Bitcoin transactions are not without their challenges. One significant issue is the lack of flexibility in transaction types, particularly for complex scenarios requiring multiple signatures or specific conditions to be met. For instance, multi-signature transactions, which provide an added layer of security by requiring approval from multiple parties, can be cumbersome and difficult to implement with standard Bitcoin transactions.

Moreover, the process of signing transactions with private keys poses a security risk if not handled correctly. Storing private keys on internet-connected devices exposes users to potential theft through hacking. Conversely, keeping keys entirely offline in cold storage makes it difficult to sign transactions in a timely and efficient manner.

These challenges highlight the need for a more versatile and secure method of conducting Bitcoin transactions, leading to the development of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBTs). PSBTs address these issues by allowing transactions to be partially signed and completed later, facilitating complex transaction types and enhancing overall transaction security.

The Genesis of PSBT

The concept of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) emerged from the growing need within the Bitcoin community for a standardized way to handle complex transactions, particularly those requiring inputs from multiple parties before finalization. As Bitcoin’s adoption widened, so did the variety of its use cases, pushing the boundaries of what traditional Bitcoin transactions could accommodate. This evolution highlighted the limitations of existing transaction formats, especially in scenarios involving multi-signature setups, cold storage, and cross-wallet compatibility.

Recognizing these challenges, developers sought to create a solution that would retain the security and decentralization of Bitcoin while introducing the flexibility needed for advanced transaction types. The result was the proposal and subsequent development of PSBT, a format designed to enhance the Bitcoin transaction process by allowing transactions to be built incrementally, signed by different parties at different stages, and finally broadcasted to the network once fully signed.

Overview of Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 174

The formal introduction of PSBTs to the Bitcoin ecosystem came through Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 174 (BIP 174), authored by Andrew Chow in 2017. BIP 174 outlines the specifications for the PSBT format, detailing how transactions can be constructed, signed, and transmitted between parties and wallets before being finalized. The proposal aimed to address several key issues, including the difficulty of conducting multi-signature transactions, the risks associated with exposing private keys during the signing process, and the lack of interoperability between different Bitcoin wallets and software.

BIP 174 defines a standardized structure for PSBTs, ensuring compatibility and ease of use across the Bitcoin network. It specifies how additional information necessary for signing a transaction, such as UTXO (Unspent Transaction Output) details and scripts, can be included within a PSBT. This allows signers to verify transactions without access to the entire blockchain, facilitating secure offline signing and enhancing the overall security of the Bitcoin network.

The Evolution from Traditional Transactions to PSBT

The introduction of PSBT marked a significant evolution in the way Bitcoin transactions are conducted. Traditional transactions, while secure and effective for straightforward transfers, lacked the flexibility required for more complex interactions on the blockchain. With the advent of PSBT, users gained the ability to engage in sophisticated transaction types without compromising on security or decentralization.

PSBTs have made multi-signature transactions more accessible and secure, enabling a broader range of use cases, from enhanced security protocols for individual users to complex contractual agreements between multiple parties. They have also significantly improved the usability of cold storage solutions, allowing users to sign transactions in a secure offline environment and then broadcast them to the network, reducing the risk of private key exposure.

The development and adoption of PSBTs represent a pivotal moment in the ongoing maturation of the Bitcoin network. By addressing the limitations of traditional transactions, PSBTs have opened new avenues for innovation and use, further solidifying Bitcoin’s position as the leading cryptocurrency.

How Does PSBT Work?

Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) introduce a flexible and secure method for conducting Bitcoin transactions, especially in scenarios requiring inputs from multiple parties. The PSBT process begins with the creation of a transaction template that includes all the necessary information except for the signatures. This template can be passed between parties, allowing each to sign the transaction with their private keys without exposing those keys to others. Once all necessary signatures are collected, the transaction can be finalized and broadcast to the Bitcoin network.

Role of PSBT in Multi-Signature Setups

Multi-signature setups, which require two or more signatures to authorize a transaction, greatly benefit from the PSBT format. PSBT simplifies the process of gathering signatures from multiple parties, each of whom may be using different wallets or signing devices. By allowing each participant to sign the transaction independently and securely, PSBTs enhance the security and flexibility of multi-signature transactions, making them more accessible and easier to manage.

Technical Components of a PSBT

A PSBT includes several technical components crucial for its functionality:

  • Unsigned Transactions: The core of a PSBT is the transaction itself, minus the signatures. This includes inputs (where the Bitcoin is coming from) and outputs (where the Bitcoin is going).
  • Signatures: Signatures are added to the PSBT by each participant using their private keys. These signatures are proof of each party’s consent to the transaction.
  • UTXO Information: For each input, the PSBT includes information about the Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) being used. This can include the amount of Bitcoin in the UTXO and the script needed to unlock it.
  • Scripts and ScriptWitnesses: PSBTs can carry scripts necessary for completing the transaction, such as those required for multi-signature or other complex transaction types.

Step-by-Step Guide on Creating and Signing a PSBT

  1. Create the Transaction Template: The initiator of the transaction creates a PSBT that includes all the transaction details except for the signatures. This includes specifying the inputs and outputs of the transaction.
  2. Add UTXO Information: The creator adds information about the UTXOs for each input, including the amount and script required to spend them. This information is crucial for signers to verify the transaction.
  3. Distribute the PSBT: The PSBT is then distributed to all parties required to sign the transaction. This can be done through various secure methods, ensuring the PSBT does not get exposed to unintended parties.
  4. Sign the PSBT: Each participant imports the PSBT into their wallet or signing device, reviews the transaction details, and signs it with their private key. The PSBT format allows this step to be done offline for enhanced security.
  5. Collect Signatures: Once all necessary signatures are collected, the PSBT is returned to the initiator or a designated coordinator who can merge the signatures into a single PSBT.
  6. Finalize and Broadcast: The fully signed PSBT is then finalized, converting it into a standard Bitcoin transaction. The final transaction is broadcast to the Bitcoin network for confirmation and inclusion in the blockchain.

The PSBT process significantly enhances the security, flexibility, and interoperability of Bitcoin transactions, particularly for complex scenarios like multi-signature setups. By enabling offline signing and simplifying the collection of signatures, PSBTs represent a significant advancement in the way Bitcoin transactions are conducted.

Benefits of Using PSBT

The introduction of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) has brought about significant improvements in the way Bitcoin transactions are executed, offering a range of benefits that enhance the overall security, privacy, and flexibility of the network. Here’s a closer look at the key advantages of using PSBTs:

Enhanced Security and Privacy

One of the most significant benefits of PSBTs is the enhanced level of security and privacy they provide. By allowing transactions to be signed offline, PSBTs minimize the risk of private key exposure to potentially malicious online environments. This offline signing process, often referred to as “cold storage” signing, ensures that private keys never have to leave the secure environment of a hardware wallet or other cold storage device. Furthermore, PSBTs support advanced transaction types like CoinJoin, which mixes multiple transactions together, thereby obfuscating the trail of individual bitcoins and enhancing user privacy.

Improved Interoperability Between Wallets and Software

PSBTs have been designed with interoperability in mind, facilitating seamless interactions between various wallets and Bitcoin software. Prior to PSBT, executing transactions across different wallets, especially those involving complex scripts or multi-signature requirements, could be cumbersome and error-prone. PSBTs standardize the transaction format, making it easier for different systems to understand and process transactions. This interoperability extends the functionality of Bitcoin wallets and software, enabling users to leverage a wider range of tools and services without compatibility issues.

Support for Complex Transaction Types

The flexibility of the PSBT format makes it an ideal solution for executing complex transaction types that go beyond simple transfers of bitcoin between two parties. Multi-signature transactions, which require approval from multiple key holders before execution, are greatly simplified by PSBTs. This simplification is crucial for organizations and high-security applications where multiple parties must consent to transactions. Additionally, PSBTs facilitate the execution of privacy-enhancing transactions like CoinJoin, as well as other innovative transaction types that contribute to the robustness and versatility of the Bitcoin network.

Facilitation of Offline Signing

The ability to sign transactions offline is perhaps one of the most critical features of PSBTs, addressing a fundamental concern regarding the security of private keys. Offline signing allows users to sign transactions in a completely air-gapped environment, far removed from the reach of online attackers. Once signed, the PSBT can be securely transferred to an online device for broadcasting to the Bitcoin network. This process not only enhances security but also provides peace of mind to users, knowing their private keys remain safe from online vulnerabilities.

In summary, the adoption of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions offers a multitude of benefits, including enhanced security and privacy, improved interoperability between wallets and software, support for complex transaction types, and the facilitation of offline signing. These advantages underscore the importance of PSBTs in the ongoing development and maturation of the Bitcoin ecosystem, making it more accessible, secure, and versatile for users worldwide.

PSBT in Practice

The introduction of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) has significantly broadened the scope of possibilities within the Bitcoin network, offering solutions to longstanding challenges and enabling new forms of financial interaction. Here, we explore the real-world applications and use cases of PSBT, illustrating its versatility and impact on the cryptocurrency landscape.

Multi-Signature Wallets

One of the most prominent applications of PSBT is in the realm of multi-signature (multi-sig) wallets. These wallets require signatures from multiple private keys before a transaction can be executed, providing an additional layer of security compared to traditional single-signature wallets. PSBT simplifies the process of creating and signing transactions in multi-sig setups by allowing each participant to sign the transaction independently, without the need to share sensitive information or expose private keys. This feature is particularly valuable for organizations, investment groups, and families who wish to jointly manage funds with enhanced security protocols.

CoinJoin Transactions for Enhanced Privacy

PSBT also plays a crucial role in facilitating CoinJoin transactions, a method for enhancing privacy by combining multiple transactions into a single transaction with several inputs and outputs. By obscuring the links between inputs and outputs, CoinJoin makes it more challenging to trace the flow of bitcoins, thereby increasing anonymity for users. PSBTs enable participants in a CoinJoin transaction to independently sign their portion of the transaction in a secure manner, contributing to the pooled transaction without compromising their privacy.

Offline Transactions and Cold Storage Signing

The ability to sign transactions offline is a critical advantage of PSBT, especially for users who prioritize security. Cold storage solutions, such as hardware wallets and paper wallets, keep private keys completely offline, safeguarding them from online threats. PSBT facilitates the process of signing transactions in these secure environments, allowing users to generate signatures without connecting their storage device to the internet. Once signed, the PSBT can be safely transferred to an online device for broadcasting to the Bitcoin network, minimizing the risk of key exposure.

Atomic Swaps and Cross-Chain Transactions

PSBTs are instrumental in executing atomic swaps, a type of cross-chain transaction that enables the exchange of cryptocurrencies across different blockchain networks without the need for a trusted third party. Atomic swaps rely on smart contracts to ensure that the exchange is executed fairly, requiring participants to sign off on the transaction for it to proceed. PSBTs streamline the signing process for atomic swaps, allowing participants to securely sign transactions on their respective blockchains. This capability not only enhances the security and efficiency of atomic swaps but also contributes to the broader interoperability between distinct blockchain ecosystems.

In practice, PSBTs have opened up a world of possibilities for Bitcoin users, developers, and organizations. By addressing key challenges related to security, privacy, and interoperability, PSBTs have facilitated a more versatile and user-friendly Bitcoin network. Whether through enhancing the security of multi-signature wallets, increasing privacy with CoinJoin transactions, enabling secure offline signing, or simplifying atomic swaps, PSBTs have proven to be a valuable addition to the cryptocurrency landscape.

Challenges and Limitations

While Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) have introduced significant advancements in the security and flexibility of Bitcoin transactions, they are not without their challenges and limitations. Understanding these potential drawbacks is crucial for users and developers alike to navigate the PSBT landscape effectively and to anticipate future developments in this area.

Overview of Potential Drawbacks and Limitations of PSBT

One of the primary challenges associated with PSBTs is the learning curve and operational complexity they introduce, especially for users who are new to Bitcoin or not technically inclined. The process of creating, signing, and broadcasting PSBTs involves several steps that can be daunting compared to the straightforward nature of traditional Bitcoin transactions. This complexity may hinder the widespread adoption of PSBTs among casual users or those who prioritize ease of use.

Size and Complexity of PSBT Files

PSBT files can become quite large and complex, especially in transactions involving multiple inputs, outputs, or signatures. Each component of a PSBT, including UTXO information, scripts, and signatures, adds to the overall size of the file. Large PSBT files can be cumbersome to handle, particularly when transferring between devices for signing or when bandwidth and storage are limited. Additionally, the complexity of managing and verifying the information within a PSBT file can pose challenges, requiring careful attention to detail to avoid errors in transaction creation and execution.

Ongoing Developments and Future Prospects

Recognizing the challenges and limitations of the current PSBT implementation, developers within the Bitcoin community are actively working on enhancements and new versions of the PSBT standard. One such development is PSBT version 2 (BIP 370), which aims to address some of the existing shortcomings. PSBT version 2 introduces improvements in the efficiency of transaction construction, better support for new transaction types, and optimizations to reduce the size and complexity of PSBT files. These enhancements are expected to simplify the PSBT process, making it more accessible and user-friendly while retaining the security and flexibility benefits that PSBTs offer.

The ongoing development of PSBT and the introduction of new versions underscore the Bitcoin community’s commitment to evolving and improving the network’s capabilities. By addressing the challenges and limitations of PSBTs, future iterations promise to further enhance the security, privacy, and interoperability of Bitcoin transactions, opening up new possibilities for users and developers.

While PSBTs represent a significant step forward in the evolution of Bitcoin transactions, they are not without their challenges. The size and complexity of PSBT files, along with the operational intricacies of managing these transactions, present hurdles that the community continues to address. The active development of PSBT version 2 and other future enhancements are a testament to the ongoing efforts to refine and improve this important technology, ensuring that it remains a valuable tool for the Bitcoin ecosystem.

How to Get Started with PSBT

Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) offer a robust framework for enhancing the security and flexibility of Bitcoin transactions, particularly for complex scenarios like multi-signature setups and offline signings. Getting started with PSBTs involves understanding the tools, wallets, and best practices for creating, managing, and broadcasting these transactions. Here’s a guide to help you navigate the PSBT landscape.

Tools and Resources for Creating and Managing PSBTs

Several tools and resources are available to facilitate the creation and management of PSBTs, catering to both beginners and advanced users. Some of the most notable include:

  • Bitcoin Core: The reference implementation of the Bitcoin protocol, Bitcoin Core, supports PSBTs, allowing users to create, sign, and broadcast transactions directly from the software.
  • Electrum Wallet: Known for its versatility and security features, Electrum offers comprehensive support for PSBTs, making it a popular choice for users looking to leverage the benefits of PSBTs.
  • HWI (Hardware Wallet Interface): HWI provides an easy-to-use command-line interface for interacting with various hardware wallets, enabling the creation and signing of PSBTs in a secure environment.

Exploring the documentation and user guides for these tools can provide valuable insights into the specifics of working with PSBTs, including the commands and steps required to perform different actions.

Recommendations for Wallets and Software Supporting PSBT

When selecting a wallet or software for PSBT transactions, it’s important to consider compatibility, security features, and ease of use. Some recommended options include:

  • Trezor and Ledger: These hardware wallets offer robust support for PSBTs, allowing users to securely sign transactions offline and minimize the risk of private key exposure.
  • Coldcard: Designed with security in mind, Coldcard specializes in offline transaction signing and is fully compatible with PSBT, making it an excellent choice for users prioritizing cold storage solutions.
  • Specter Desktop: Specter Desktop is designed to facilitate multi-signature setups and integrates seamlessly with hardware wallets, providing a user-friendly interface for managing PSBTs.

Tips for Securely Managing PSBT Transactions

Managing PSBT transactions securely involves adhering to best practices that protect your private keys and ensure the integrity of your transactions. Here are some tips to consider:

  • Always Use Trusted Software: Only download wallet software and tools from official sources to avoid malicious versions that could compromise your security.
  • Verify Transactions Carefully: Before signing a PSBT, thoroughly verify the transaction details, including the addresses and amounts involved, to prevent unintended transfers or errors.
  • Leverage Cold Storage: Whenever possible, sign PSBTs using a hardware wallet or another cold storage method to keep your private keys isolated from online threats.
  • Keep Software Updated: Regularly update your wallet software and tools to the latest versions to benefit from security patches and new features that enhance PSBT management.

Getting started with PSBTs may seem daunting at first, but by leveraging the right tools, choosing compatible wallets, and following best practices for security, users can significantly enhance the flexibility and security of their Bitcoin transactions. As the Bitcoin ecosystem continues to evolve, PSBTs represent a critical advancement in the network’s ability to accommodate complex transaction types while maintaining the high security standards that have made Bitcoin the leading cryptocurrency.


Throughout this article, we’ve delved into the intricacies of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT), exploring their development, functionality, benefits, practical applications, and the challenges they aim to overcome. We’ve seen how PSBTs enhance the security and flexibility of Bitcoin transactions, making it possible to execute complex transactions such as multi-signature setups, CoinJoin transactions for enhanced privacy, offline signings, and even atomic swaps with ease and heightened security.

The introduction of PSBT represents a significant advancement in the Bitcoin ecosystem, addressing critical needs for improved transaction security, privacy, and interoperability. By enabling transactions to be partially signed and completed at different stages, PSBTs offer a robust solution for managing multi-signature transactions, facilitating offline signing in a secure manner, and supporting a wide range of complex transaction types that were previously challenging to execute.

The importance of PSBT in advancing Bitcoin’s security and flexibility cannot be overstated. As the Bitcoin network continues to grow and evolve, the ability to conduct transactions securely and efficiently becomes increasingly crucial. PSBTs play a pivotal role in this evolution, offering users the tools needed to navigate the complexities of the Bitcoin network while maintaining the highest standards of security and privacy.

We encourage everyone, from seasoned Bitcoin enthusiasts to newcomers curious about the world of cryptocurrency, to explore the possibilities that PSBT offers for enhancing Bitcoin transactions. The journey into understanding and utilizing PSBTs may seem daunting at first, but the benefits of increased security, privacy, and flexibility are well worth the effort.

For those eager to dive deeper into the world of Bitcoin and PSBT, numerous authoritative resources are available online. These resources provide comprehensive guides, tutorials, and technical documentation to help you navigate the PSBT landscape with confidence.

Additionally, for individuals and organizations looking to leverage Bitcoin mining solutions and gain expertise in PSBT, D-Central Technologies stands as a valuable resource. With a wealth of experience in the Bitcoin mining industry and a deep understanding of PSBTs, D-Central Technologies offers the support and solutions needed to maximize your Bitcoin operations.

In conclusion, the advent of Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions marks a significant milestone in the ongoing development of the Bitcoin network. By embracing PSBTs, the Bitcoin community can look forward to a future where transactions are not only more secure and private but also more inclusive and adaptable to the diverse needs of users worldwide.


What are Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT)?

Partially Signed Bitcoin Transactions (PSBT) are a format for Bitcoin transactions that enhances security by allowing transactions to be partially signed by one or more parties before being completed by others. This format supports complex transaction types, improves interoperability, and facilitates offline signing.

Why were PSBTs introduced to the Bitcoin network?

PSBTs were introduced to address the need for more sophisticated transaction types in the Bitcoin network, particularly for scenarios requiring multi-signature approvals and to improve transaction security by enabling offline signing.

How do PSBTs enhance Bitcoin transaction security?

PSBTs enhance security by allowing the signing of transactions offline in cold storage, which minimizes the risk of private key exposure. They also support complex transaction types like multi-signature setups and CoinJoin transactions, increasing privacy and security.

What challenges do PSBTs aim to address within the Bitcoin ecosystem?

PSBTs aim to address challenges related to the complexity of executing multi-signature transactions, the security risks associated with exposing private keys during the signing process, and enhancing interoperability between different Bitcoin wallets and services.

How do PSBTs work?

A PSBT process starts with creating a transaction template excluding signatures. This template can be passed among parties for independent signing. Once all required signatures are collected, the transaction can be finalized and broadcast to the Bitcoin network.

What are key advantages of using PSBTs?

Key advantages include enhanced security through offline signing, improved privacy via support for CoinJoin transactions, better interoperability between wallets, and the ability to handle complex transaction types more efficiently.

How can someone get started with using PSBTs?

To start using PSBTs, one should familiarize themselves with tools and wallets that support PSBT, like Bitcoin Core, Electrum Wallet, and hardware wallets like Trezor and Ledger. Following best practices for securely managing PSBT transactions is also recommended.

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DISCLAIMER: D-Central Technologies and its associated content, including this blog, do not serve as financial advisors or official investment advisors. The insights and opinions shared here or by any guests featured in our content are provided purely for informational and educational purposes. Such communications should not be interpreted as financial, investment, legal, tax, or any form of specific advice. We are committed to advancing the knowledge and understanding of Bitcoin and its potential impact on society. However, we urge our community to proceed with caution and informed judgment in all related endeavors.

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